The Congo River with its basin astride the Equator, provides the DRC with a usable energy potential estimated at 100,000 MW, spread across 780 sites in 145 territories and 76 000 villages. This potential represents approximately 37% of the African overall potential and about 6% of the global potential.
The DRC also has significant potential resources of renewable energy such as biomass, wind, solar, biogas, biofuel, etc.
The energy situation of the provinces is as follows :
Sources : Atlas of the Ministry of Water Resources, Kinshasa, 2014.
- Solar Potential : average sunshine varies between 3.22 and 4.89 kWh / m² / day ;
- Wind potential : the average annual wind speed measured at 10 m height is 1.3 m / s ;
- Electrification rate : 44.1%.
- Solar Potential : 6.5 kWh / m² / day ;
- W ind potential : average wind speed of over 5m / sec ;
- The installed capacity is 567 MW, while the current demand is estimated around 900 MW (including 600 MW only for the mining sector) .
- The hydropower potential is estimated at 64,000 MW (560,640 GWh) per year ;
- The Inga site alone stands for 69% of the potential (ie 44,000 MW).
- The overall potential of the sites currently identified is estimated at 7200MW ;
- The electrification rate : 3.6%.
- The electrification rate in the province is very low (0.5%) ;
- Energy requirements (2012) are estimated at 264.774 MW against the insignificant current installed capacity (2012) : 1.94 MW, thus highlighting a very important gap that makes stop all sectors ;
- The solar potential : 4.4 and 5.14 kWh / m2 / day.
- The hydroelectric potential is 103 MW ;
- The electrification rate is very low : 1% with a non-existent power ;
- The total installed capacity is 31.7 MW 20.7 MW stopped representing 65.2% of installed power ;
- The solar potential varies between 5.16 kWh / m² / day and 5.26 kWh/ m2 /day.
- The current electrification rate is estimated at 3.1% ;
- The installable power can reach 240.3 MW ;
- B iomass potential : the annual producible energy can reach 76,583.74 MWh ;
- Solar p otential : the average sunshine varies between 4 and 5.5 kWh / m2 / day ;
- Natural gas : the potential could reach 57.00 billion Nm3.
- Hydroelectric potential : t he installable power can reach 1050.00 MW ;
- B iomass potential : the annual producible energy can reach 109 878.88 MWh / year ;
- Solar p otential : average sunshine reaches 5 kWh /m2 / day ;
- Wind potential : the average annual rate of less than 5 m/s ;
- Natural gas : the potential could reach 57.00 billion Nm3 ;
- Annual electrification rate : 7.9%.
- The electrification rate is very low 3.0% ;
- The solar potential, located in a strip between 3,5 and 6.75 KWh / m² / day) ;
- Production is available : 2.1MW.
- Hydroelectric potential estimated at 104 MW ;
- Solar potential : sunshine varying from 4.5 to 7 kWh /m² /day ;
- The electrification rate is 0.6%, penultimate nationally ;
- The province has a huge gap of about 408.35 MW between supply and demand : the installed capacity of existing facilities is 22.66 MW, against a power of 431,01MW to cover current energy needs .
- The electrification rate : Very low ≈1.4% while the province has several sites identified in the northern part ;
- Strong biomass potential (about 40 million hectares of forests on 86 million that abounds the DRC ;
- Energy requirements (2012) in the province are estimated at 426, 085 MW (all territories of Equateur), against an availability of around 26, 770MW (2010) ;
- Good sunshine level with values between 5 and 5.5 kWh/ m²/d.
Of the total installed capacity in DRC estimated at 2,516 MW, SNEL has a generation capacity of about 2,416 MW, or 96% of installed national power, consisting essentially of hydroelectric plants. However, actual production is only 6,000 to 7,000 Gwh. The auto producers share the remaining 100 MW of installed capacity, or 4%.
Despite the huge potential that the country abounds, much of the land remains without electricity because of the dilapidated facilities dating from the colonial period and the lack of new investors in the sector. The country’s electrification rate remains low at 9.6% and the government’s vision is to increase the level of service up to 32% in 2030.
But the country does not have sufficient financial resources to cope with all these plant construction needs, an Investment Code and a Code of Electricity were established to attract private investors to the sector.
- Liberalization of the sector to private partners ;
- Public-private partnership which has promoted the implementation of the following projects : great Katende, Kakobola, Zongo II, etc ... ;
- Public-Public Partnership between the DRC and South Africa for the construction of Inga III plant with a capacity of 4,500 MW.
Increase the supply rate of electricity from 9% to 32%
Construction of energy highways in the following lines :
- Inga Site → Gabon → Cameroon → Nigeria → Mali
- Inga Site → Central Africa → Chad → Libya
- Inga Site → Angola → Namibia → Botswana → South Africa
- Inga Site → South Africa → Sudan → Egypt
- Inga Site → Malawi → Zambia → Zimbabwe → Lesotho
IV. legal framework
The energy sector in the DRC is regulated by Law No. 14/011 of 17 June 2014 which aims in particular at :
- Effective liberalization of the sector ;
- The promotion and harmonious development of supply in urban, pre-urban and rural areas ;
- The coverage in electricity need for all categories by the quality supplies ;
- The guarantee of fair competition between operators and users’ rights.
This law applies to activities of production, transmission, distribution, import, export and marketing of electricity implemented by any operator.